We report for the first time successful inscription of high reflectivity Bragg grating in nanostructured core active fiber. Nanostructurization of the fiber core allows to separate the active and photosensitive areas and to distribute them all over the core. As a result unfavorable clustering between germanium and ytterbium particles is avoided. The distribution of discrete glass areas with feature size smaller than λ/5 results in effectively continuous refractive index profile of the fiber core. We present a single-mode fiber with built-in Bragg grating for laser application with the core composed of ytterbium and germanium doped silica rods. The core structure is arranged as a regular lattice of 1320 doped with ytterbium and 439 doped with germanium silica glass rods. The average germanium doping level within the core of only 1.1% mol allowed efficient inscription of Bragg grating. The nanostructured core was 8.6 μm and the internal cladding was 112 μm in diameter coated with low index polymer to achieve the double-clad structure. In the first proof-of-concept in the laser setup we achieved 35 % of slope efficiency in relation to launched power for the fiber length of 18 m. The output was single-mode with spectrum width below 1 nm. The maximum output power limited by pumping diode was 2.3 W. The nanostructurization opens new opportunities for development of fibers with a core composed of two or more types of glasses. It allows to control simultaneously the refractive index distribution, the active dopants distribution and photosensitivity distribution in the fiber core.
We demonstrate the 3%mol ytterbium doped phosphate glass air-clad photonic crystal fibre (PCF) laser of 43 cm length
in single-mode operation. The fabrication and testing of the fibre laser is introduced. The laser generates from the 12 μm
core of photonic microstructure at wavelength of 1030 nm. Near 4-W output power and 14.6% slope efficiency against
the launched pump power is demonstrated in preliminary characterization.
Double-clad photonic crystal fibre structure for laser applications is demonstrated. The double-clad structure of the fibre has the air-cladding with glass bridges of waists less than 500nm. The fibre was produced with phosphate glass and the core region was doped with ytterbium. The fibre was investigated and we found it to be monomode for generation wavelength of 1008nm. Whole fibre producing process including doped and undoped glass manufacturing and fibre drawing was held in Institute of Electronic Materials Technology.
We present experimental realization of elliptical-hole rectangular lattice photonic crystal fibres fabricated from multi-component glass. The photonic cladding has a lattice constant 2.17 μ and 3.72 μ for main axis, respectively and elliptical holes with ellipticity 2.14. The rectangular lattice is chosen to obtain two-fold geometry and to increase the global asymmetry of photonic structure, which enhance birefringence of fibre. Rectangular lattice allows also a better control of elliptical air holes uniformity during fabricating process. Fabricated fibres have a cladding with a rectangular cross-section. It allows for easy identification of the fibre's principal axes and orientation of the fibre with respect to directional measured perturbation like axial stress, bending force in sensor applications. Using a full vector plane-wave expansion method an influence of structure parameters such as ellipticity of air holes and aspect ratio of rectangular lattice on birefringence and modal properties of the fibres are studied. Potential applications of the fibres are discussed.
A range of integrated fiber optic structures - lightguides, image guides, multicapillary arrays, microstructured (photonic) fibers - manufactured in the Institute of Electronic Materials Technology (ITME) is described. All these structures are made of multicomponent glasses (a part of them melted in ITME). They can be manufactured in similar multistep process that involves drawing glass or lightguide rods and tubes preparing glass performs, stacking a bundle with rods and (or) tubes, drawing multifiber or multicapillary performs. Structure formation, technological process, characterization and applications of different integrated structures are presented.
A square lattice photonic crystal fiber is described. The square lattice structures were fabricated, characterized and their polarization properties were investigated. The polarization properties of the fibers were not as strong as those reported previously in highly birefringent PCF, but these structures have considerable potential for high birefringence.
The use of piezoelectric transducer and acoustooptically induced waves were proposed for mode field excitation on a single-mode microbend fiber taper structure. As the result the in-line fiber attenuator was proposed tuned easily by the transducer low power drive voltage which was fully telecommunication compatible. The tuning range was up to 13 dB and the excess losses not exceeded 0.3 dB typically.