A high-sensitivity and low-cost optical fiber sensor for seawater temperature sensing is designed and fabricated. The large core-offset splicing sensing structure was made of single-mode fiber only. To fabricate the sensing structure precisely with a length deviation <10 μm, the relative fabrication equipment was designed and assembled. Temperature measurement experiment of the sensor was performed in a seawater bath. Also, the experimental results show that redshift of the wavelength occurs with the increase of external temperature. Its temperature response curve conforms to the quadratic curve. The temperature sensitivity can reach up to 2.293 nm/°C, and the fitting degree is up to 0.9998. Moreover, the excellent repeatability of our sensor has been verified. The sensor has great potential to measure the temperature in the ocean.
Marine expendable temperature/depth profiler (XBT) is a disposable measuring instrument which can obtain temperature/depth profile data quickly in large area waters and mainly used for marine surveys, scientific research, military application. The temperature measuring device is a thermistor in the conventional XBT probe (CXBT)and the depth data is only a calculated value by speed and time depth calculation formula which is not an accurate measurement result. Firstly, an optical fiber expendable temperature/depth sensor based on the FBG-LPG cascaded structure is proposed to solve the problems of the CXBT, namely the use of LPG and FBG were used to detect the water temperature and depth, respectively. Secondly, the fiber end reflective mirror is used to simplify optical cascade structure and optimize the system performance. Finally, the optical path is designed and optimized using the reflective optical fiber end mirror. The experimental results show that the sensitivity of temperature and depth sensing based on FBG-LPG cascade structure is about 0.0030C and 0.1%F.S. respectively, which can meet the requirements of the sea water temperature/depth observation. The reflectivity of reflection mirror is in the range from 48.8% to 72.5%, the resonant peak of FBG and LPG are reasonable and the whole spectrum are suitable for demodulation. Through research on the optical fiber XBT (FXBT), the direct measurement of deep-sea temperature/depth profile data can be obtained simultaneously, quickly and accurately. The FXBT is a new all-optical seawater temperature/depth sensor, which has important academic value and broad application prospect and is expected to replace the CXBT in the future.
The linearity and the stain resistance of existing humidity sensor is poor, which exists the problems such as low resolution at low temperatures, low faded wet in high humidity environment, large measurement error and long response time. Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy technology is studied to measure the environmental humidity, and digital quadrature lock-in amplifiers are used to extract the first harmonic signal and the second harmonic signal, which can eliminate the influence of the phase delay angle and can improve the detection accuracy of the system. Comparative experiment between TDLAS humidity sensor and R.M.YOUNG humidity sensor was completed in the lab, experimental results show that the consistency of the humidity data is very good, which can proves the validity of the TDLAS humidity measurement technology.
Humidity is an important environmental parameter, which is difficult to be measured accurately and quickly using traditional measurement methods. Under the environment of low temperature or high humidity, traditional humidity and temperature sensor has shortages in humidity measurement accuracy, corresponding time and wet fade speed. To solve these problems, this paper proposes a method to measure the environmental humidity with wavelength modulation technology and harmonic detection technology based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy. H<sub>2</sub>O molecular absorption line near 1392 nm is selected as the characteristic spectra. The effects of temperature, pressure and water concentration on the absorption spectrum width, the wavelength modulation coefficient and the amplitude of the harmonic signal are analyzed. Humidity and temperature sensor is modified using temperature and pressure compensation model, and the influence of the water concentration variation is eliminated by the iterative algorithm. The new humidity and temperature sensor prototype is developed, and the structure of the optical system is simple, which is easy to be adjusted. The response frequency of the humidity detection is 40 Hz. The experiment was carried out for 3 months at Qingdao national basic weather station. Experimental results show that the consistency of the humidity and temperature data is very good, which can proves the validity of the humidity measurement technology.