Although there are many articles focused on in vivo or ex vivo Raman analysis for cancer diagnosis, to the best of our
knowledge its potential to predict the aggressiveness of tumor has not been fully explored yet. In this work Raman
spectra in the finger print region of ex vivo breast tissues of both healthy mice (normal) and mice with induced mammary
gland tumors (abnormal) were measured and associated to matrix metalloproteinase-19 (MMP-19) immunohistochemical
exam. It was possible to verify that normal breast, benign lesions, and adenocarcinomas spectra, including the subtypes
(cribriform, papillary and solid) could have their aggressiveness diagnosed by vibrational Raman bands. By using MMP-
19 exam it was possible to classify the samples by malignant graduation in accordance to the classification results of
Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The spectra NM /MH were classified correctly in 100% of cases; CA/CPA group
had 60 % of spectra correctly classified and for PA/AS 54% of the spectra were correctly classified.
Thyroid gland is a small gland in the neck consisting of two lobes connected by an isthmus. Thyroid's main function is to
produce the hormones thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) and calcitonin. Thyroid disorders can disturb the production of
these hormones, which will affect numerous processes within the body such as: regulating metabolism and increasing
utilization of cholesterol, fats, proteins, and carbohydrates. The gland itself can also be injured; for example, neoplasias,
which have been considered the most important, causing damage of to the gland and are difficult to diagnose. There are
several types of thyroid cancer: Papillary, Follicular, Medullary, and Anaplastic. The occurrence rate, in general is between 4
and 7%; which is on the increase (30%), probably due to new technology that is able to find small thyroid cancers that may
not have been found previously. The most common method used for thyroid diagnoses are: anamnesis, ultrasonography, and
laboratory exams (Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy- FNAB). However, the sensitivity of those test are rather poor, with a high
rate of false-negative results, therefore there is an urgent need to develop new diagnostic techniques. Raman spectroscopy
has been presented as a valuable tool for cancer diagnosis in many different tissues. In this work, 27 fragments of the thyroid
were collected from 18 patients, comprising the following histologic groups: goitre adjacent tissue, goitre nodular tissue,
follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma, and papillary carcinoma. Spectral collection was done with a commercial FTRaman
Spectrometer (Bruker RFS100/S) using a 1064 nm laser excitation and Ge detector. Principal Component Analysis,
Cluster Analysis, and Linear Discriminant Analysis with cross-validation were applied as spectral classification algorithm.
Comparing the goitre adjacent tissue with the goitre nodular region, an index of 58.3% of correct classification was obtained.
Between goitre (nodular region and adjacent tissue) and papillary carcinoma, the index of correct classification was 64.9%,
and the classification between benign tissues (goitre and follicular adenoma) and malignant tissues (papillary and follicular
carcinomas), the index was 72.5%.
Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer type in women Worldwide. Sensitivity and specificity of clinical breast
examinations have been estimated from clinical trials to be approximately 54 % and 94 %, respectively. Further,
approximately 95 % of all positive breast cancer screenings turn out to be false-positive. The optimal method for early
detection should be both highly sensitive to ensure that all cancers are detected, and also highly specific to avoid the
humanistic and economic costs associated with false-positive results. In vivo optical spectroscopy techniques, Raman in
particular, have been pointed out as promising tools to improve the accuracy of screening mammography. The aim of
the present study was to apply FT-Raman spectroscopy to discriminate normal and adenocarcinoma breast tissues of
Sprague-Dawley female rats. The study was performed on 32 rats divided in the control (N=5) and experimental (N=27)
groups. Histological analysis indicated that mammary hyperplasia, cribriform, papillary and solid adenocarcinomas were
found in the experimental group subjects. The spectral collection was made using a commercial FT-Raman
Spectrometer (Bruker RFS100) equipped with fiber-optic probe (RamProbe) and the spectral region between 900 and
1800 cm<sup>-1</sup> was analyzed. Principal Components Analysis, Cluster Analysis, and Linear Discriminant Analysis with
cross-validation were applied as spectral classification algorithm. As concluding remarks it is show that normal and
adenocarcinoma tissues discriminations was possible (correct proportion for Transcutaneous collection mode was
80.80% and for "Open Sky" mode was 91.70%); however, a conclusive diagnosis among the four lesion subtypes was
The Raman-based optical diagnosis of normal cervix, inflammative cervix (cervicitis), and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia was investigated on samples of 63 patients. The main alterations were found in the 857 cm−1 (CCH deformation aromatic); 925 cm−1 (C–C stretching); ~1247 cm−1 (CN stretch, NH bending of Amide III); 1370 cm−1 (CH2 bending); and 1525 cm−1 (C=C/C=N stretching) vibrational bands in accordance with previously reported in the literature comparing normal and malignant cervical tissue. The statistical analysis (principal components analysis, clustering, and logistic regression models) applied to the spectral data indicated that the full discrimination among normal and neoplastic tissues of cervix by Raman optical biopsy is seriously affected by the presence of inflammatory infiltrates, which increases the false-positive rate. This fact is specially relevant once cervicitis is a very common state (noncancerous) of the cervix of sexually active woman. The results suggest that, for the correct Raman-based diagnosis of normal cervix from cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, it is necessary to use an auxiliary way to discriminate the contribution from the inflammatory infiltrates.
The histogenesis of the breast Paget's disease was investigated by the optical diagnosis technique using
Raman spectroscopy. A total of 15 spectra of the associated breast lesion, 21 spectra of the eczematoid
skin lesion and 396 spectra of invasive breast cancer not otherwise specified were compared by
clustering the spectral data between 800 - 1800 cm<sup>-1</sup> at level of similarity of 95%, using a correlation
distance measurement by computing the covariance matrix. The Raman spectral-biochemical
characterization of invasive breast cancer and breast Paget's disease with eczematoid skin lesion
associated with underlying invasive breast lesion tissues enabled one concludes that the parenchymal
disease had similar characteristics to the skin's Paget lesion. This could indicate a similar histogenesis
for both. Thus, the findings of the present work adds a relevant experimental evidence that agrees with
the epidermotropic theory of Paget's disease, that states that the cells originate in the breast ducts and
migrate to the nipple's skin.
Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) is an emerging and promising therapeutic modality for treatment of a wide variety of malignant and nononcologic tumors, as well as in the treatment of infected skin ulcers. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the PDT to treat a chronic skin wound that had been already subjected to several clinical and surgical type treatments in a dog. The animal with an infected chronic skin wound with 8 cm diameter in the left leg received an injection of an aqueous solution of 1% methylene blue (MB) with 2% lidocaine into the lesion. After MB injection the wound was irradiated using a LED (LED-VET MMOptics(r)) with a wavelength between 600 and 700 nm, 2 cm diameter circular light beam, of 150 mW of power, light dose of 50 J/cm<sup>2</sup>. After 3 and 6 weeks PDT was repeated and the wound was re-evaluated. Complete healing was achieved 10 weeks after the first procedure.
Raman spectroscopy has been well established as a powerful method for studying biological tissues and
diagnosing diseases. In this study we have developed a breast cancer animal model and collected in
vivo Raman spectra of mammary glands of 27 Sprague-Dawley female rats treated with DMBA and 5
non-treated used as control group. A dispersive Raman spectrometer with a @785 nm laser excitation
coupled a fiber optic probe and a CCD detector was used to obtain the spectra. The obtained in vivo
transcutaneous Raman spectra have shown important differences between normal and abnormal tissues
when acquired from one side to the other side of the lesion.
This study evaluated the molecular and morphological changes on dentin elements after the Er:YAG laser irradiation. Six
human third molars were selected and the occlusal one-third of the crown was removed. The dentin surface was
schematically divided into areas corresponding to four surface treatments groups: Control (Group C): 37% phosphoric
acid etching; Group I: Er:YAG laser 80mJ; Group II: Er:YAG laser 120mJ; Group III: Er:YAG laser 180mJ. The
characterization was performed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier-Transformed Raman Spectroscopy
(FT-Raman) before and after the treatments. A reduction of the relative intensity for the spectra was observed in the
Group II and III samples. The SEM photomicrographies revealed open dentin tubules in the control group specimens.
The groups I, II and III presented partially open dentin tubules. SEM images showed that the laser-irradiated dentin
surface was not favorable to the diffusion of monomers. The chemical information obtained by Raman spectroscopy
showed that higher laser energies (180 mJ) affected more the phosphate, carbonate and the organic components of
Melanoma is the most aggressive skin cancer and is invariably fatal if left untreated. Melanoma removal at early
stages is almost always curative and therefore early detection is essential. Removal of every pigmented lesion is
unacceptable for the patient, especially in the case of multiple skin lesions or lesions localized in cosmetically important
parts of the body such as the face because of risk of scarring. The development of a technique to detect these changes in
a noninvasive way is therefore crucial for melanoma detection. In this study, we have used FT-Raman Spectroscopy to
investigate through PCA analysis the alterations in the molecular structure of 90 skin spectra, being 30 Pigmented Nevi,
30 Primary Melanoma, and 30 Metastasis, for 6 patients. For projection of data, the scores (Principal Components) <i>PC1</i>
to <i>PC3</i> were calculated. <i>PC1</i> versus <i>PC3</i> for the 800 to 1800 cm<sup>-1</sup> spectral region. <i>PC1</i> versus <i>PC2</i> for the 1200 to
1400 cm<sup>-1</sup> spectral region. In both analysis, we could differentiate the three different types of tissues.
We employ Fourier–transform Raman spectroscopy to study normal and tumoral human breast tissues, including several subtypes of cancers. We analyzed 194 Raman spectra from breast tissues that were separated into 9 groups according to their corresponding histopathological diagnosis. The assignment of the relevant Raman bands enabled us to connect the several kinds of breast tissues (normal and pathological) to their corresponding biochemical moieties alterations and distinguish among 7 groups: normal breast, fibrocystic condition, duct carcinoma in situ, duct carcinoma in situ with necrosis, infiltrating duct carcinoma not otherwise specified, colloid infiltrating duct carcinoma, and invasive lobular carcinomas. We were able to establish the biochemical basis for each spectrum, relating the observed peaks to specific biomolecules that play a special role in the carcinogenesis process. This work is very useful for the premature optical diagnosis of a broad range of breast pathologies. We noticed that we were not able to differentiate inflammatory and medullary duct carcinomas from infiltrating duct carcinoma not otherwise specified.
In this work we employ the Fourier Transform Raman Spectroscopy to study the human breast tissues, both normal and pathological. In the present study we analyze 194 Raman spectra from breast tissues that were separated into 9 groups according to their corresponding histopathological diagnosis, which are as follows: Normal breast tissue, Fibrocystic condition, In Situ Duct Carcinoma, In Situ Duct Carcinoma with Necrosis, Infiltrating Duct Carcinoma, Infiltrating Duct Inflammatory Carcinoma, Infiltrating Duct Medullar Carcinoma, Infiltrating Duct Colloid Carcinoma, and Infiltrating Lobule Carcinoma. We found a strong lipids Raman band, and this structure was identified as abundant in the normal breast tissue spectra. The primary structure of proteins was identified through the shift of the amine acids bands. The identification of the secondary structure of proteins occurred through the peptide bands (Amide I and Amide
III). In relation to the carbohydrates, the spectra of duct infiltrating colloid carcinoma, fibrocystic condition, and infiltrating duct carcinoma have been compared and identified. We observed an increase in the intensity of the 800-1200 cm<sup>-1</sup> spectral region. This fact could indicate the presence of liquid cystic. We also notice alterations in the peaks in the region of 500 to 600 cm<sup>-1</sup> and 2000 to 2100 cm<sup>-1</sup> that may suggest changes in the nucleic acids of the cells.
In this study FT-RAMAN spectra of breast tissue from 35 patients were obtained and separated into nine groups for histopathologic analysis, which are as follows: normal breast tissue, fibrocystic condition, in situ ductal carcinoma, in situ ductal carcinoma with necrosis, infiltrate ductal carcinoma, infiltrate inflammatory ductal carcinoma, infiltrate medullar ductal carcinoma, infiltrate colloid ductal carcinoma, and infiltrate lobular carcinoma.
Using spectrum averages taken from each group a qualitative analysis was performed to compare these molecular compositions to those known to be present in abnormal concentrations in pathological situations, e.g. the development of desmoplastic lesions with a stroma of dense collagen in tumoral breast tissues which substitute adipose stroma of non-diseased breast tissue. The band identified as amino acids, offered basis for observation in the existence of alterations in the proteins, thus proving Raman Spectroscopic capacity in identification of primary structures of proteins; secondary protein structure was also identified through the peptic links, Amide I and Amide III, which have also been identified by various authors. Alterations were also identified in the peaks and bandwidths of nucleic acids demonstrating the utilization of Raman Spectroscopy in the analysis of the cells nucleus manifestations. All studies involving Raman Spectroscopy and breast cancer have shown excellent result reliability and therefore a basis for the technical theory.
FT-Raman spectroscopy is a modern analytical tool and it is believed that its use for skin cancer diagnosis will lead to several advantages for patients, e.g., faster results and a minimization of invasivity. This article reports results of an <i>ex Vivo</i> study of the FT-Raman spectra regarding differentiation between non-diseased and malignant human skin lesions, Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC). A Nd: YAG laser at 1064nm was used as the excitation source in the FT-Raman, RFS 100/S Spectrometer, Bruker. Thirty-nine sets of human skin samples, 18 histopathologically diagnosed as non-diseased, and 21 as BCC, were obtained during routine therapeutic procedures required by the primary disease. No sample preparation was needed to promote the FT-Raman spectra collection. The main spectral features, which may differentiate the sample, were found in the shift region of Amide I (1640 to 1680 cm<sup>-1</sup>), Amide III (1220 to 1330cm<sup>-1</sup>), proteins and lipids (1400 to 1500 cm<sup>-1</sup>), amino acids (939 to 940 cm<sup>-1</sup>) and deoxyribonucleic acid (1600 to 1620cm<sup>-1</sup>). Principal Components Analysis (PCA) was applied to FT-Raman spectra of Basal Cell Carcinoma. Analysis was performed on mean-normalized and mean-centered data of the non-diseased skin and BCC spectra. The dynamic loading of PCA was expanded into 2D contour by calculating a variance-covariance matrix. PCA was used to verify the statistical differences in the sample. This technique applied over all samples identified tissue type within 83% of sensitivity and 100% specificity. The PCA technique proved efficient for analysis in skin tissue <i>ex vivo</i>, results were significant and coherent.
Optical spectroscopy has been extensively studied as a potential in vivo diagnostic tool to provide information about the chemical and morphologic structure of tissue. Raman Spectroscpy is an inelastic scattering process that can provide a wealth of spectral features that can be related to the specific molecular structure of the sample. This article reports results of an in vitro study of the FT-Raman human breast tissue spectra. An Nd:YAG laser at 1064nm was used as the excitation source in the FT-Raman Spectrometer. The neoplastic human breast samples, both Fibroadenoma and ICD, were obtained during therapeutical routine medical procedures required by the primary disease, and the non-diseased human tissue was obtained in plastic surgery. No sample preparation was needed for the FT-Raman spectra collection. The FT-Raman spectra were recorded from normal, benign (Fibroadenomas) and malignant (IDC-Intraductal Carcinoma) samples, adding up 51 different areas. The main spectral differences of a typical FT-Raman spectra of a Normal (Non-diseased), Fibroadenoma, and Infiltrating Ductal Carcinoma (IDC) breast tissue at the interval of 600 to 1800cm<sup>-1</sup>, which may differentiate diagnostically the sample, were found in the bands of 1230 to 1295cm<sup>-1</sup>, 1440 to 1460 cm<sup>-1</sup> and 1650 to 1680 cm<sup>-1</sup>, assigned to the vibrational bands of the carbohydrate-amide III, proteins and lipids, and carbohydrate-amide I, respectively.