Three-dimensional (3D) shape measurement of fringe projection profilometry (FPP) with high speed and accuracy is required in many applications. The measurement speed of FPP system is mainly limited by the low frame rate of pattern projection. Although defocusing binary patterns can be used to increase the measurement speed greatly, it will decrease the measurement depth. To this end, a novel triangular pattern generation method is proposed in this paper. By designing and projecting binary strip patterns with focused projector, images of triangular patterns can be then acquired with high frame rate. Fast and accurate 3D shape measurement can be finally obtained by using phase-shifting triangular patterns. Compared with the traditional sinusoidal patterns, the proposed method can improve the projection rate more than 4 times. Moreover, the proposed method will not decrease the measurement depth. Experimental results are given to confirm the validity of the proposed method.