For Venµs satellite, launched August 2 nd, 2017, the calibration and performance assessment activities of the commissioning phase took place in the second semester of 2017. In particular, the radiometric calibration includes fine tuning of the dynamic, identification of defective pixels, equalization of the detectors, absolute calibration, viewing parameters tuning. A special focus is made on specificities of the mission concerning level-1 radiometric calibration. As far as equalization is concerned: an unusual behavior has been observed on numerous pixels, called “radiometric spikes”, on Venµs images. An improvement of the Venµs radiometric model has been implemented to remove these spikes. Absolute calibration using the moon consists in comparing the global irradiance of the Venµs moon image with the reference from ROLO radiometric model. Absolute calibration using simultaneous nadir observations with Sentinel-2 is also a specificity of the mission: since Sentinel-2A and Sentinel-2B are currently in orbit with very similar spectral bands, it is possible to use Simultaneous Nadir Observations of Venµs and Sentinel-2. The cross-calibration results will be presented and compared to other vicarious calibration methods. About stray-light modelling and correction: the optical stray-light level exceeds the requirements by far. Two types of stray-light are observed: local ghost and cross-talk ghost. Local stray-light model is computed as a global system MTF, whereas the estimated cross-talk contribution is subtracted from the image. The specific correction model and the in-flight results will be presented.
A new permanently instrumented radiometric calibration site for high/medium resolution imaging satellite sensors is currently under development, focussing on the visible and near infra-red parts of the spectrum. The site will become a European contribution to the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) initiative RadCalNet (Radiometric Calibration Network). The exact location of the permanent monitoring instrumentation will be defined following the initial site characterisation. The new ESA/CNES RadCalNet site will have a robust uncertainty budget and its data fully SI traceable through detailed characterisation and calibration by NPL of the instruments and artefacts to be used on the site. This includes a CIMEL sun photometer (the permanent instrumentation) an ASD FieldSpec spectroradiometer, Gonio Radiometric Spectrometer System (GRASS), and reference reflectance standards.
In partnership with the European Commission and in the frame of the Copernicus program, the European Space Agency (ESA) is developing the Sentinel-2 optical imaging mission devoted to the operational monitoring of land and coastal areas. The Sentinel-2 mission is based on a satellites constellation deployed in polar sun-synchronous orbit. Sentinel-2 offers a unique combination of global coverage with a wide field of view (290km), a high revisit (5 days with two satellites), a high spatial resolution (10m, 20m and 60m) and multi-spectral imagery (13 spectral bands in visible and shortwave infrared domains). The first satellite, Sentinel-2A, has been launched in June 2015. The Sentinel-2A Commissioning Phase starts immediately after the Launch and Early Orbit Phase and continues until the In-Orbit Commissioning Review which is planned three months after the launch. The Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales (CNES) supports ESA/ESTEC to insure the Calibration/Validation commissioning phase during the first three months in flight. This paper provides first an overview of the Sentinel-2 system and a description of the products delivered by the ground segment associated to the main radiometric specifications to achieve. Then the paper focuses on the preliminary radiometric results obtained during the in-flight commissioning phase. The radiometric methods and calibration sites used in the CNES image quality center to reach the specifications of the sensor are described. A status of the Sentinel-2A radiometric performances at the end of the first three months after the launch is presented. We will particularly address in this paper the results in term of absolute calibration, pixel to pixel relative sensitivity and MTF estimation.
Sentinel-2 is an optical imaging mission devoted to the operational monitoring of land and coastal areas. It is developed in partnership between the European Commission and the European Space Agency. The Sentinel-2 mission is based on a satellites constellation deployed in polar sun-synchronous orbit. It will offer a unique combination of global coverage with a wide field of view (290km), a high revisit (5 days with two satellites), a high resolution (10m, 20m and 60m) and multi-spectral imagery (13 spectral bands in visible and shortwave infra-red domains). CNES is involved in the instrument commissioning in collaboration with ESA. This paper reviews all the techniques that will be used to insure an absolute calibration of the 13 spectral bands better than 5% (target 3%), and will present the first results if available. First, the nominal calibration technique, based on an on-board sun diffuser, is detailed. Then, we show how vicarious calibration methods based on acquisitions over natural targets (oceans, deserts, and Antarctica during winter) will be used to check and improve the accuracy of the absolute calibration coefficients. Finally, the verification scheme, exploiting photometer in-situ measurements over Lacrau plain, is described. A synthesis, including spectral coherence, inter-methods agreement and temporal evolution, will conclude the paper.