We present a simple method to assess surface figure error tolerances of optical systems. From a statistical analysis, an empirical equation is obtained for estimating the overall wavefront error contribution from surface figure error tolerance assigned on each surface. The same equation can be used to evaluate the inverse sensitivity for surface figure error specification given an error budget.
We present the optical design and system characterization of an imaging microscope prototype at 121.6 nm. System engineering processes are demonstrated through the construction of a Schwarzschild microscope objective, including tolerance analysis, fabrication, alignment, and testing. Further improvements on the as-built system with a correction phase plate are proposed and analyzed. Finally, the microscope assembly and the imaging properties of the prototype are demonstrated.
We discuss the behavior of air lenses in lens design. The structural aberration coefficients of a thin air lens are derived and compared with their glass thin lens counterpart. Examples are provided for a telephoto lens and the Monochromatic Quartet where air lenses or aspheric surfaces are used.
We present a simple method to design apochromat and superachromat objectives. The chromatic focal shift is used to determine glass combinations that yield three and four crossings in the chromatic focal shift curve. The method can be extended to design superachromats with more than four crossings.
By utilizing the Hydrogen-Lyman-α (HLA) source at 121.6 nm, we hope to achieve an intrinsic resolution of 247 nm at 0.3 numerical aperture (NA) and 92 nm at 0.8 NA. The motivation for 121.6 nm microscopy is the existence of a transparent window in the air absorption spectrum at that wavelength, which allows for the sample to be in air while the microscope is in an enclosed nitrogen environment. The microscope objective consists of two reflective optics and a LiF window, and it has been designed to demonstrate diffraction limited performance over a 160μm full field at 121.6 nm. The optomechanical design consists of mechanical subcells for each optical component, precision spacers and a barrel bore, which allow for submicron control of tolerance parameters.