KEYWORDS: Digital watermarking, Image restoration, Detection and tracking algorithms, Image quality, 3D image processing, Image processing, Image compression, Multimedia, Visualization, Signal to noise ratio
We propose a new watermarking algorithm for stereoscopic image tamper detection and self-recovery in three-dimensional multimedia services. Initially, left and right views of stereoscopic image are divided into nonoverlapping 2×2 blocks in order to improve the accuracy of tamper localization in an image. As the left and right views of a stereoscopic image are not independent from each other but have an inter-view relationship, every block of a stereoscopic image is classified into matching block or nonmatching block and then block disparities are obtained. Both matching blocks in the left and right views have similar pixel values, so that fewer bits are allocated for recovery watermark generation, which can increase the quality of watermarked stereoscopic images. A hierarchical tamper-detection strategy with a four-level checkup is presented to improve the accuracy of tamper localization. Additionally, two copies of block (matching block and nonmatching block) information are embedded into the stereoscopic image, and it assures the quality of tampered recovery. For the nonmatching block recovery, two copies of the partner block are embedded into their chaotic mapping blocks, which supply the second chance for tamper recovery. For the matching block recovery, the inter-view relationship between tampers of left and right views supplies the third chance for tamper recovery. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can not only detect and locate tampers in stereoscopic image more accurately but also recover the tampered regions better, compared with other algorithms.