The high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) technique employs a narrow spectral filter to separate the aerosol and molecular scattering components from the echo signals and therefore can retrieve the aerosol optical properties and lidar ratio (i.e., the extinction-to-backscatter ratio) profiles directly, which is different from the traditional Mie lidar with assumed lidar ratio. Accurate aerosol profiles measurement are useful for air quality monitoring. In this paper, a spaceborne HSRL lidar system simulation model based iodine vapor cell filter was presented. According to three different atmosphere aerosol distribution models and the uncertainties of atmosphere temperature and pressure, the signal to noise ratio (SNR) and the relative errors profiles of the backscattering coefficients of this lidar was simulated theoretically in daytime and nighttime. The result shows that the errors of aerosol backscattering coefficients are smaller in the aerosols dense area than in the sparse area. As altitude increases, the relative error of backscattering coefficient is increased. The relative backscattering coefficient error is within 16.5% below 5 km with 30 m range resolution and 10 km horizontal resolution.
An all‐fiber pulsed coherent Doppler LIDAR (CDL) system is described. It uses a fiber laser as a light source at a 1.54‐μm wavelength, producing 200 μJ pulses at 10 kHz. The local oscillator signal is mixed with the backscattered light (of different frequency) in the fiber. The atmospheric wind speed is determined through the fast Fourier transform applied to the difference frequency signal acquired by an analog‐to‐digital converter card. This system was used to measure the atmospheric wind above the upper‐air meteorological observatory in Rongcheng (37.10°N, 122.25°E) of China between January 7 and 19, 2015. The CDL data are compared with sounding‐ and pilot‐balloon measurements to assess the CDL performance. The results show that the correlation coefficient of the different wind‐speed measurements is 0.93 and their discrepancy 0.64 m/s; the correlation coefficient for wind‐direction values is 0.92 and their discrepancy 5.8 deg. A time serial of the wind field, which benefits the understanding of atmospheric dynamics, is presented after the comparisons between data from CDL and balloons. The CDL system has a compact structure and demonstrates good stability, reliability, and a potential for application to wind‐field measurements in the atmospheric boundary layer.