We present the application of a laser ultrasonic technique in nondestructive characterization of the bonding layer (BL) in a thermal barrier coating (TBC). A physical mode of a multilayered medium is established to describe the propagation of a longitudinal wave generated by a laser in a TBC system. Furthermore, the theoretical analysis on the ultrasonic transmission in TBC is carried out in order to derive the expression of the BL transmission coefficient spectrum (TCS) which is used to determine the velocity of the longitudinal wave in the BL. We employ the inversion method combined with TCS to ascertain the attenuation coefficient of the BL. The experimental validations are performed with TBC specimens produced by an electron-beam physical vapor deposition method. In those experiments, a pulsed laser with a width of 10 ns is used to generate an ultrasonic signal while a two-wave mixing interferometer is created to receive the ultrasonic signals. By introducing the wavelet soft-threshold method that improves the signal-to-noise ratio, the laser ultrasonic testing results of TBC with an oxidation of 1 cycle, 10 cycles, and 100 cycles show that the attenuation coefficients of the BL become larger with an increase in the oxidation time, which is evident for the scanning electron microscopy observations, in which the thickness of the thermally grown oxide increases with oxidation time.
The residual stress of electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) thermal barrier coatings (TBC) is complex and difficult to be obtained. In this paper, the interface morphology of TBCs subjected to cyclic heating and cooling was observed by SEM. Based on the thermal elastic-plastic finite method, corresponding interface model of TBCs was established. The residual stress of EB-PVD TBCs with different interface morphologies and TGO thicknesses was calculated using the FE method without regard to the presence of cracks and defects. The result shows that the distribution of residual stress is significantly affected by the interface morphology, and the growth of TGO also has influence on the residual stress of TC and TGO.
A noncontact laser ultrasonic method is provided for nondestructive characterization of bonding layer (BL) in thermal barrier coating (TBC). A physical mode of thin multi-layered structure is established for the case of received ultrasonic waveform consisting of reverberant overlapping echoes. Then, the transmission coefficient of the mode was derived in this work. Experiments have been performed on TBC specimens using the proposed method. The specimens are produced by electronic beam physical vapor deposition (EBPVD) method. A pulsed laser with width of 10 ns was used to generate ultrasonic while a two wave mixing (TWM) interferometer was employed to receive the ultrasonic signals. Wavelet soft-threshold method (WSTM) was introduce to improve the signal to noise ratio of laser ultrasonic testing TBC. The transmission coefficient spectrum of TBC was obtained to measure the longitudinal velocity of BL. Further, the numerical fitting method is used to determine the attenuation of BL. The proposed method is used to evaluate TBC after 1, 10 and 100 times, and the experimental results are in according with the SEM observations. This method is able to nondestructively characterize BL in TBC system, and is important to practical engineering application.