In this paper, it presents a new imaging technology that could realize to extent the depth of field and contribute to receive the large iris aperture optical system. The new technology combines lenses assistance and the aberration modulation. Based on the method, we establish a new optical system. Simulation results indicate that the modulation transfer function (MTF) curves of this optical system have consistency feature during different object distances. According to the feature, we can restore ambiguous images to unambiguous ones. Compared with another normal optical system, the experimental results indicate that the new optical system has the large depth of field and large iris aperture features.
Wavefront coding, a technique of optical-digital hybrid image, can be used to extend the depth of the field. However, it sacrifices the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of system at a certain degree, especially on focus situation. The on-focus modulation transfer function (MTF) of wavefront coding system is much lower than that of generally traditional optical system. And the noise will be amplified in the digital image processing. This paper analyzes characteristics of the SNR of the wavefront coding system in the frequency domain and calculates the rate of noise amplification in the digital processing. It also explains the influence of the image detector noise severely reducing the restored quality of images. In order to reduce noise amplification in the process of image restoration, we propose a modified wiener filter which is more suitable for restoration in consideration of noise suppression. The simulation experiment demonstrates that the modified wiener filter, compared with traditional wiener filter, has much better performance for wavefront coding system and the restored images having much higher SNR in the whole depth of the field.
As an important branch of infrared imaging technology, infrared target tracking and detection has a very important scientific value and a wide range of applications in both military and civilian areas. For the infrared image which is characterized by low SNR and serious disturbance of background noise, an innovative and effective target detection algorithm is proposed in this paper, according to the correlation of moving target frame-to-frame and the irrelevance of noise in sequential images based on OpenCV. Firstly, since the temporal differencing and background subtraction are very complementary, we use a combined detection method of frame difference and background subtraction which is based on adaptive background updating. Results indicate that it is simple and can extract the foreground moving target from the video sequence stably. For the background updating mechanism continuously updating each pixel, we can detect the infrared moving target more accurately. It paves the way for eventually realizing real-time infrared target detection and tracking, when transplanting the algorithms on OpenCV to the DSP platform. Afterwards, we use the optimal thresholding arithmetic to segment image. It transforms the gray images to black-white images in order to provide a better condition for the image sequences detection. Finally, according to the relevance of moving objects between different frames and mathematical morphology processing, we can eliminate noise, decrease the area, and smooth region boundaries. Experimental results proves that our algorithm precisely achieve the purpose of rapid detection of small infrared target.
Intense Terahertz waves generated from air-induced plasma and serving as broadband THz source provide a promising broadband source for innovative technology. Terahertz generation in selected gases has attracted more and more researchers’ interests in recent years. In this research, the THz emission from different atoms is described, such as nitrogen, argon and helium in Michelson. The THz radiation is detected by a Golay Cell equipped with a 6-mm-diameter diamond-inputting window. It can be seen in the first time that when the pump power lies at a stable level, the THz generation created by the femtosecond laser focusing on the nitrogen is higher than which focusing on the helium, and lower than that produced in the argon gas environment. We believe that the THz intensity is Ar > N > Ne because of its atomic mass, which is Ar > N > Ne as well. It is clear that the Gas molecular decides the release of free electrons ionized from ultra short femtosecond laser through the electronic dynamic analysis. The higher the gas mass is, the stronger the terahertz emission will be. We further explore the THz emission at the different laser power levels, and the experimental results can be commendably quadratic fitted. It can be inferred that THz emission under different gas medium environment still complies with the law of four-wave mixing (FWM) process and has nothing to do with the gas environment: the radiation energy is proportional to the quadratic of incident laser power.
We describe the application of wavefront coding technique for infrared imaging system to control thermal defocus. For traditional infrared imaging system, athermalization is necessary to maintain imaging performance which may increase complexity and cost of the imaging system. Wavefront coding includes a phase mask at the pupil which can re-modulate wave front so as to produce an encoded image. After digital processing, the system is insensitive to defocus. In this paper, the combination of wavefront coding technique and infrared imaging system has been discussed. We report here the optic design of the wavefront coding IR system based on Zemax. The phase mask is designed to ensure that the modulation transfer function (MTF) is approximately invariant in the range of working temperature. Meanwhile, we designed three IR systems to put up contrast experiments. System one and two are designed to compare the influence before and after the insertion of phase mask. System three is designed to compare the imaging performance before and after reducing lens in wavefront coding IR system. The simulation results show that the infrared imaging system based on wavefront coding can control thermal defocus in a temperature varying from -60ºC to 60 ºC, at the same time the weight and cost of optical elements are reduced by approximately 40%.
For large depth of field and large aperture optical system, we design a novel optical system based on a structure of large aperture wave front coding (LAWFC). According to optical aberration theory and information optics theory, we also establish the theoretical model of large aperture wave front coding structure. Applied with the large aperture wave front coding, the optical structure overcomes the contradiction between extension depth of field and size of aperture, and the images have excellent consistency in each field of view. Within the simulation, it shows that the MTF curve of the large aperture wave front coding can achieve 90% consistency in the range of depth of field. Compared with the traditional wave front coding, the experience also shows that not only the depth of field and the size of aperture are extended, but also the LAWFC can significantly improve the illumination and the contrast of image plane, and restrain chromatic aberration. It is concluded that the novel structure can expand not only the depth of field but also the size of aperture.
This paper presents a new optical structure which achieves super-resolution by means of changing the
complex amplitude of light wave. It also establishes the numerical simulation of the structure. Placed
in front of the aperture of optical system, this new structure can modulate the light wave by changing
the amplitude transmittance, and also make the central maximum of the Airy Pattern narrower to
achieve super-resolution. We analyze modulation effects of many kinds of transmittance function. The
numerical simulated result shows that the central maximum of the Point Spread Function (PSF),
modulated by transmittance function whose edge value is greater than central value, becomes narrower
than that of the idea optical system. It is also concluded that this optical structure is insensitive to
different wavelength compared with the phase shifting apodizer, which brings about less chromatic
dispersion. This conclusion is extremely useful to realize the super-resolution.
In the optical imaging system, deep depth of focus brings larger imaging space, thereby obtaining more information from object space, but also correcting defocus error caused by variety reasons. Thus deep depth of focus has profound significance in the practical application. The information optical imaging system based on the wave-front coding is a general interest among the current research of focal depth extension area. A special designed phase mask been added in the optical system, which could encode object information obtained from the designed focal depth range. By this mean, the OTF and MTF become insensitive to defocussing. Thus equal blurred middle images could be obtained, being processed by phase mask decided by the optical system which was known both by designing and testing and digital image process technology, the final clear image with extended depth of focus could be acquired. In this paper, the detail of a novel image restoration algorithm for the wave-front coding system was discussed. We aim at a specific designed wave-front coding imaging lens, using the edge condition and wavelet transform for an improved Wiener filtering processing. The result of simulation and experimental shown this algorithm could quickly decode the obtained blurred middle image. In the premise of retain more details, this method could product a good image restoration within with whole range of the designed depth of focus. The peak of signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio and the information entropy have been promoted. So does the control of the blurred edge and the ringing effect.