Bone marrow is both the main hematopoietic and important immune organ. Bone marrow lesions (BMLs) may cause a series of severe complications and even myeloma. The traditional diagnosis of BMLs rely on mostly bone marrow biopsy/ puncture, and sometimes MRI, X-ray, and etc., which are either invasive and dangerous, or ionizing and costly. A diagnosis technology with advantages in noninvasive, safe, real-time continuous detection, and low cost is requested. Here we reported our preliminary exploration of feasibility verification of using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in clinical diagnosis of BMLs by Monte Carlo simulation study. We simulated and visualized the light propagation in the bone marrow quantitatively with a Monte Carlo simulation software for 3D voxelized media and Visible Chinese Human data set, which faithfully represents human anatomy. The results indicate that bone marrow actually has significant effects on light propagation. According to a sequence of simulation and data analysis, the optimal source-detector separation was suggested to be narrowed down to 2.8–3.2cm, at which separation the spatial sensitivity distribution of NIRS cover the most region of bone marrow with high signal-to-noise ratio. The display of the sources and detectors were optimized as well. This study investigated the light transport in spine addressing to the BMLs detection issue and reported the feasibility of NIRS detection of BMLs noninvasively in theory. The optimized probe design of the coming NIRS-based BMLs detector is also provided.
Bone marrow is an important hematopoietic organ, and bone marrow lesions (BMLs) may cause a variety of
complications with high death rate and short survival time. Early detection and follow up care are particularly important.
But the current diagnosis methods rely on bone marrow biopsy/puncture, with significant limitations such as invasion,
complex operation, high risk, and discontinuous. It is highly in need of a non-invasive, safe, easily operated, and
continuous monitoring technology. So we proposed to design a device aimed for detecting bone marrow lesions, which
was based on near infrared spectrum technology. Then we fully tested its reliabilities, including the sensitivity, specificity,
signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), stability, and etc. Here, we reported this sequence of reliability test experiments, the
experimental results, and the following data analysis. This instrument was shown to be very sensitive, with
distinguishable concentration less than 0.002 and with good linearity, stability and high SNR. Finally, these
reliability-test data supported the promising clinical diagnosis and surgery guidance of our novel instrument in detection
Bone marrow lesions (BMLs) is an incidence-increasing disease which seriously hazard to human health and possibly
contribute to paralysis. Delayed treatment often occurred to BMLs patients due to its characteristics such as complex and
diverse clinical manifestations, non-specific, easy to misdiagnosis and etc. The conventional diagnosis methods of BMLs
mainly rely on bone marrow biopsy/aspiration, which are invasive, painful, high health risk, and discontinuous which
disabled monitoring and during-surgery guidance. Thus we proposed to develop a noninvasive, real-time, continuous
measurement, easy-operated device aimed at detecting bone marrow diseases. This device is based on near-infrared
spectroscopy and the probe is designed with a cross-shape to tightly and comfortably attach human spine. Space-resolved
source-detector placement and measurement algorithm are employed. Four selected wavelength were utilized here to
extract BMLs-related component contents of oxy-, deoxy-hemoglobin, fat, scattering index corresponding to fibrosis. We
carried out an ink experiment and one clinical measurement to verify the feasibility of our device. The potential of NIRS
in BMLs clinics is revealed.
Driver fatigue is one of the leading causes of traffic accidents. It is imperative to develop a technique to monitor fatigue of drivers in real situation. Near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is now capable of measuring brain functional activity noninvasively in terms of hemodynamic responses sensitively, which shed a light to us that it may be possible to detect fatigue-specified brain functional activity signal. We developed a sensitive, portable and absolute-measure fNIRS, and utilized it to monitor cerebral hemodynamics on car drivers during prolonged true driving. An odd-ball protocol was employed to trigger the drivers’ visual divided attention, which is a critical function in safe driving. We found that oxyhemoglobin concentration and blood volume in prefrontal lobe dramatically increased with driving duration (stand for fatigue degree; 2-10 hours), while deoxyhemoglobin concentration increased to the top at 4 hours then decreased slowly. The behavior performance showed clear decrement only after 6 hours. Our study showed the strong potential of fNIRS combined with divided visual attention protocol in driving fatigue degree monitoring. Our findings indicated the fNIRS-measured hemodynamic parameters were more sensitive than behavior performance evaluation.