We present a spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) study of local hemodynamics in the human finger cuticle of healthy volunteers performing paced breathing and the forearm of healthy young adults performing normal breathing with our recently developed Real Time Single Snapshot Multiple Frequency Demodulation – Spatial Frequency Domain Imaging (SSMD-SFDI) system. A two-layer model was used to map the concentrations of deoxy-, oxy-hemoglobin, melanin, epidermal thickness and scattering properties at the subsurface of the forearm and the finger cuticle. The oscillations of the concentrations of deoxy- and oxy-hemoglobin at the subsurface of the finger cuticle and forearm induced by paced breathing and normal breathing, respectively, were found to be close to out-of-phase, attributed to the dominance of the blood flow modulation by paced breathing or heartbeat. Our results suggest that the real time SFDI platform may serve as one effective imaging modality for microcirculation monitoring.
Wide-field tissue imaging is usually not capable of resolving tissue microstructure. We present High Spatial Frequency Domain Imaging (HSFDI) - a noncontact imaging modality that spatially maps the tissue microscopic scattering structures over a large field of view. Based on an analytical reflectance model of sub-diffusive light from forward-peaked highly scattering media, HSFDI quantifies the spatially-resolved parameters of the light scattering phase function from the reflectance of structured light modulated at high spatial frequencies. We have demonstrated with ex vivo cancerous tissue to validate the robustness of HSFDI in significant contrast and differentiation of the microstructutral parameters between different types and disease states of tissue.
We have presented a novel Single Snapshot Multiple Frequency Demodulation (SSMD) method enabling single snapshot wide field imaging of optical properties of turbid media in the Spatial Frequency Domain. SSMD makes use of the orthogonality of harmonic functions and extracts the modulation transfer function (MTF) at multiple modulation frequencies and of arbitrary orientations and amplitudes simultaneously from a single structured-illuminated image at once. SSMD not only increases significantly the data acquisition speed and reduces motion artifacts but also exhibits excellent noise suppression in imaging as well. The performance of SSMD-SFDI is demonstrated with experiments on both tissue mimicking phantoms and <i>in vivo</i> for recovering optical properties. SSMD is ideal in the implementation of a real-time spatial frequency domain imaging platform, which will open up SFDI for vast applications in, for example, mapping the optical properties of a dynamic turbid medium or monitoring fast temporal evolutions.
We present a spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) study of local hemodynamics in the forearm of healthy volunteers performing paced breathing. Real time Single Snapshot Multiple Frequency Demodulation - Spatial Frequency Domain Imaging (SSMD-SFDI) was used to map the optical properties of the subsurface of the forearm continuously. The oscillations of the concentrations of deoxy- and oxyhemoglobin at the subsurface of the forearm induced by paced breathing are found to be close to out-of-phase, attributed to the dominance of the blood flow modulation by paced breathing. The properties of local microcirculation including the blood transit times through capillaries and venules are extracted by fitting to Simplified Hemodynamics Model. Our preliminary results suggest that the real time SSMD-SFDI platform may serve as one effective imaging modality for microcirculation monitoring.
The Spatial-frequency dependence of turbid media reflectance encodes both optical properties and depth information. The high spatial frequency domain imaging (HSFDI) can, in particular, extract key characteristics of the phase function of the scattering medium which carries the ultimate structural information of the medium. We first outline the principle of HSFDI and then present here a compact optical configuration integrating the modulated illumination and imaging systems, facilitating quantitative wide-field optical properties mapping at high spatial frequencies. The performance of HSFDI is assessed on both tissue phantoms and in vivo.
We present here the numeric study of the propagation of polarized coherent complex light in turbid media with Electric field Monte Carlo (EMC) approach. EMC is one unique Monte Carlo method suitable for simulating coherent phenomenon of multiple scattering light. EMC has been extended to explicitly incorporate the complex incident wave front of coherent complex light and used to investigate the interaction of coherent complex light with highly scattering turbid media such as biological tissue. We will report the dependence of the decay of the beam intensity and the loss of the polarization over the penetration depth on the orbital angular momentum of the complex light and the scattering properties of a turbid medium. The potential application of complex light in imaging turbid media will be discussed.