An overview of program management, focussed on actions to improve the management process, is based on a hierarchy of management roles. The life cycle of a technology program is directed to defining the activities and controls relevant to specific R&D phases. Methods for improving personnel selection are suggested, and the issues peculiar to management in government are identified. An assessment of planning performance is given along with a survey of technology forecasting methods available as aids to planning. A summary identifies specific needs for management improvement in the above areas.
This discussion represents a personal perspective of the management procedures within the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering (OUSDRE). As is well known, research and development spans a wide range: exploratory development through production and deployment. The portion of the activities that I have been involved with in OUSDRE deals with the application of technology to weapons systems. The viewpoint presented here, therefore, is not associated with exploratory development, but rather with engineering development. My concern has been government procedures in budgeting and monitoring, with emphasis on what it is that OUSDRE looks for from other government agencies and from industry in planning and conducting research and development activities. My focus is on those management features which I think the industrial community will find interesting and can utilize to help OUSDRE.
In this paper I will describe the way the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) plans technology programs. The procedures I will describe apply to other technology areas besides Optics and I won't be very specific about the Optics Programs except to define the scope of our efforts in Optics. The basic thing I want to do is provide some feeling for how we make decisions and why we do things that may appear strange from outside the Government. To do that I am going to talk about the planning of the DARPA Optics Programs. I use the word planning rather than management because, in the particular role I have, I spend much of my time involved with the planning function, whereas the management function is shared by several people in DARPA. The DARPA managers like myself do some management and the individual Division Chiefs and Program Managers do more. However, a great deal of the management is reflected down to the Service agents that do the day-to-day technical and fiscal management of the programs.
The Air Force is actively supporting scientific research in optics programs through the award of grants and contracts to universities and industries and through in-house programs at Air Force Laboratories. This program encompasses research directed toward the broad spectrum of physical phenomena and techniques underlying lasers and optics related technologies. The overall objective of this paper is to describe the management of Air Force optics research programs. This will be 'accomplished by describing Air Force research management in general with examples derived from the optics program.
One of the ways in which optics related programs are managed in DoD and NASA is through the coordination of programs by Working Group D (Mainly Lasers) of the Advisory Group on Electron Devices. The objective of this paper is to explain the purpose, responsibilities, organization, and method of operation of the Advisory Group on Electron Devices (AGED) and, in particular of Working Group D.
Have you ever been surprised at the results of a competitive procurement? The winner or winners, the losers, the mix of the teams, the contract value, etc? In this paper I will discuss 'Program Planning in Industry" which bears directly on the above factors and also hope to provide insight into why industry sometimes does and sometimes does not choose to invest its R&D and marketing resources in optics program opportunities. Also, I hope to indicate how both government and industry benefit through open and equitable communications in their respective planning activities.
Planning and implementation of high technology electro-optical programs is discussed from both the government and industry viewpoints. The specific case examined is BMD electro-optics development. The government program manager must translate national policy into specific technical requirements and tasks which can be performed and fit budget. The R&D organization must be closely coupled to the government program manager and his mission objectives to assure relevance. At the same time, there must be flexibility to incorporate technology advances that have occurred outside the "institution." Lessons learned from the case study and ways in which R&D management can be improved are also discussed.
An instrument is currently being designed to provide both visual and ultraviolet imaging data from the Space Telescope. This instrument, the Wide Field Planetary Camera, is being managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the Principal Investigator at the California Institute of Technology. This paper describes the relationships developed between the Principal Investigator, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and industry to design, develop, fabricate, and test the optical system of the instrument. The primary role of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in the development of the optical system is the management of the design, fabrication, and testing activity required to produce flight hardware from the baseline optical design provided by the Principal Investigator. A portion of the design and fabrication activity will be performed by JPL in-house, with the remainder performed by industry under subcontracts managed by JPL. Along with a description of the organization and management of the optical activity is an overview of the instrument, its optical system, and its expected performance.
The following topics are covered: • R&D relevance to company objectives • R&D to solve operational needs - -Selecting technology directions --Evaluating alternatives - - Planning --Resolution of issues • Company inter-group relationships --Positive and negative factors - -Motivation • Handling change
The application of optical systems in the development of advance sensor systems presents a unique challenge for the emerging program manager. A primer of the program manager's resporisibilities and tasks are presentees with his interface with the optical engineers clearly in mind. Included are various pitfalls to be avoided and techniques for assessing the critical areas to be undertaken in the program. The goal of the author is enlightenment of the program manager to ensure the longevity of his assignment. This article helps the program manager avoid program "glitches" by implementing alternate, preplanned solution paths which reduce the effects of a "glitch" should one occur.
Effectiveness in the management of high-technology electro-optical programs requires the creation and maintenance of an environment that permits an interdisciplinary team to achieve the paramount goal of technical excellence. The author's personal experiences with three major electro-optical development programs are described along with the differing management approaches used. These programs encompass a wide spectrum of program types including (a) prime contract and subcontract, (b) fixed price and cost reimbursable, (c) large complex systems with many subsystems and a highly sophisticated single unit, intended for land, sea, air, and space application. Expectedly,. the management approach to all the programs is similar; however, management problems with each program are contrasted. Effectiveness is best achieved when program personnel are highly motivated and personally committed. Electro-optical programs, especially, require a special coordination of the interdisciplinary effort.
The Federal Contract Research Center (FCRC) operates in the region between that of a government organization and an industrial contractor. The organization, responsibilities and limitations of an FCRC are described. The advantages that accrue from such an organizational entity and the constraints imposed on the centers are discussed. The way in which programs are originated with the various government agencies and the organizational structures established in response to government needs are described. Several different case histories are presented to illustrate the various ways in which programs are managed depending upon the nature of the work to be performed.