The display of the sectional images of the object in a modified trigun shadow mask picture tube and in modified Forgue's picture tube are described. Volumetric display of images in three picture tubes and in large screen laser scan display medium are analysed. Further, the volumetric display of sectional images in gas discharge display metrices and LED metrics are examined for faithful reconstruction of 3D images. Also, a direct eye contact viewing system for stereographic vision is illustrated. An autostereoscopic method of displaying images in a LED based lenticular lens screen is also analysed.
Great effort is directed to the improvement of visual fidelity in the complex and detailed displays needed for training programs. The aim of technology is to create an eye limited display suitable to the requirements for advanced training and maintenance of skill operations. Such requirements specify real world (or near real world) quality in the visual displays, as well as a complex set of integrated cuing. While the field of view requirmenets are set by the mission scenarios, structures, and performance (i.e. aircraft stability), the resolution requirements are determined by the visual performance parameters at the various visual task levels (detection, recognition, etc.). Brightness requirements are more complex, interacting with contrast, color and level of detail, as well as resolution (and usually as a trade off with field of view). Human psychophysical parameters impact all such requirements. This paper discusses the display parameters necessary to present an eye limited (real world level of acceptance) scene to the observer, and since total compliance is presently difficult to attain, to provide "acceptable" levels of display performance for various training programs.
A prototype remote helmet mounted display (HMD) has been demonstrated on a combat vehicle as a display for the tank commander. Preliminary tests indicated that the HMD did improve communications and coordination with the other crewmen, providing the tank commander with more control over the tank. In addition, several new options are now available to the combat vehicle community which were not possible in the past. If the HMD were utilized with a stabilized platform, the expanded capability could enhance and change the role of combat vehicles.
Historically, the performance evaluation of imaging systems has been based on static parameters. These imaging systems were purely optical in nature and did not possess temporal characteristics. With the development of electro-optical imaging systems, and their use in dynamic environments, performance is no longer independent of time constants associated with components of the system. However, static methods often remain the sole measure of performance. In order to accurately measure the performance of an electro-optical imaging system, it is necessary to develop assessment techniques which incorporate both static and dynamic parameters. Justification for considering the temporal characteristics in the performance evaluation of such systems is discussed.
A generic sensor/display/soldier interface concept is described for potential application as a helmet or headdress mounted infantry display system. A compact, lightweight infrared camera mounted on a rifle is expected to provide the video image. The objective for the head-mounted display is to increase the soldier's personal safety and functional performance by remotely displaying an image that is generated by a boresighted camera and to reduce eye fatigue.
Some of the controversies surrounding the possible standardization fo an MTFA- type image quality predictor equation for VDTs were discussed. For instance, the metric treats display system spatial modulation transfer and observer contrast threshold as continuous functions of spatial frequency, the unitary image quality criterion being related to the area between the functions.
Conventional color TV pick-up systems, which have interline CCD image sensors with color filter array, have poor picture fidelity, due to factors such a luminance/chrominance spurious signals, image lag, and so on. In this paper, a new color coding method (improved line sequential complete color difference signal method) combined with a new CCD operation (quasi-field integration mode) is proposed to realize a single-chip color camera with well-balanced performance; no visible horizontal spurious color and no image lag. To certify the advanced performance, the single-chip color camera was experimentally fabricated using a 384(H)><490(V) pixel CCD sensor with complementary color filter array. The high fidelity reproduced images with no visible spurious color, a 56 dB signal-to-noise ratio, and low image lag, comparable to that for the field integration mode, were achieved. The newly proposed technologies are attractive for use with electronic still cameras for such application fields as office automation document readers, as well as to use with video cameras.
A 1/2-in, interline transfer CCD imager with 250,000 pixels has been developed. The effective sensing area designed in 7.75mm diagonal adapts to the 1/2-in optical format. Dark current has been greatly reduced by employing a sensor where holes are accumulated at the silicon-silicon dioxide interface. As a result, a drastic reduction of fixed patte6n noise and a superior picture quality are obtained, even at high temperatures (about 55 °C).
A new solid state imager has been developed, which implements a signal sweep-out circuit for the purpose of controlling sensitivity by the control signal generated in the camera circuitry. Sensitivity can be easily controlled electronically without using a lens iris or a mechanical shutter.
A color laser microscope utilizing a new color laser imaging system has been developed for the visual inspection of semiconductors. The light source, produced by three lasers (Red; He-Ne, Green; Ar, Blue; He-Cd), is deflected horizontally by an AOD (Acoustic Optical Deflector) and vertically by a vibration mirror. The laser beam is focused in a small spot which is scanned over the sample at high speed. The light reflected back from the sample is reformed to contain linear information by returning to the original vibration mirror. The linear light is guided to the CCD image sensor where it is converted into a video signal. Individual CCD image sensors are used for each of the three R, G, or B color image signals. The confocal optical system with its laser light source yields a color TV monitor image with no flaring and a much sharper resolution than that of the conventional optical microscope. The AOD makes possible a high speed laser scan and a NTSC or PAL TV video signal is produced in real time without any video memory. Since the light source is composed of R, G, and B laser beams, color separation superior to that of white light illumination is achieved. Because of the photometric linearity of the image detector, the R, G, and B outputs of the system are most suitably used for hue analysis. The CCD linear image sensors in the optical system produce no geometrical distortion, and good color registration is available principally. The output signal can be used for high accuracy line width measuring. The many features of the color laser microscope make it ideally suited for the visual inspection of semiconductor processing. A number of these systems have already been installed in such a capacity. The Color Laser Microscope can also be a very useful tool for the fields of material engineering and biotechnology.
A new barrier and drain antiblooming architecture has been developed for virtual phase CCD image sensors. In this structure the drain is isolated from the pixel wells by the channel stop implant except in the antiblooming control region, where it is the same as the normal pixel barrier which exists along the direction of charge transfer. In addition, in this structure the drain is placed beneath the virtual electrode to eliminate low voltage breakdown effects. The unique organization of this structure allows the same potential levels to be used in both the antiblooming barrier and the transfer barrier. This multiple use of the same potential region greatly simplifies the processing needed for this type of device. The structure is formed by the process steps normally used to fabricate the sensor without antiblooming, except for one additional ion implant and pattern level to form the antiblooming drain. The antibooming action is continuous during integration and readout, and has extremely high overload tolerance. These features make this structure the preferred form of antiblooming for applications which have very high overload, such as flash lamp illumination. The process economy inherent in this anti-blooming structure results in higher sensor yields and lower manufacturing costs.
This report describes the general theory and design of an ultra high resolution, film recorder CRT which was developed at Tektronix, Inc. The electron gun utilizes a unique pre-focusing scheme to significantly reduce aberrations in the final focusing lens, thus yielding a spot of less than .001" (1 mil) at the half power point (50%) with a beam current of 10 μA. The non-aluminized, fine particle phosphor screen was developed to minimize spot growth and maximize luminance output, while meeting stringent target defect specifications.
This paper proposes an MIM-Diode LCD using SCAD("Storage Capacitor Addressed Diode") structure, and confirms the realization of a large area and high-resolution SCAD-LCD panel by fabricating an LCD panel with 450 X 450 pixels and 0.2 mm pitch. A characteristic for the "SCAD" structure is that the series connection between an MIM-diode and a storage capacitor is addressed by column and row electrodes. The voltage applied to a liquid-crystal layer is controlled by the storage capacitor voltage. "SCAD-LCD" advantages are that fine lithography and fine alignment accuracy are unnecessary, even for fine-pitch panels, due to the large storage capacitor capacitance. These advantages are also confirmed by digital simulation.
The subject of projecting an infrared scene takes up more or less where mathematical modeling efforts leave off. Typically, a mathematical model produces a table or file of numbers, representing the final states of a modeled system at different times or under different conditions. This discussion treats the problem of how one goes about changing the numerical computer output from a scene radiance model into actual infrared radiances projected to a sensor. "Infrared," as used here, means thermally emitted radiation, generally in the 2 to 20 micrometer region of the spectrum.
This paper describes efforts undertaken at the U.S. Army Center for Night Vision and Electro-Optics to produce a mid and far infra-red emitting cathode ray tube. The background of this research effort is explained and the products and by-products are described along with their status and expected applications.
This paper reviews the present state of development of a high performance infrared image transducer for use in advanced real time infrared image simulation. This transducer is based on the Silicon Liquid Crystal Light Valve technology developed at Hughes Research Laboratories and consists of a high resistivity single crystal silicon photoconductor coupled with an oxide layer to form a MOS structure; a liquid crystal is used as the modulator. Results are presented for simulations in the 8 to 12 μm spectral region.
This paper presents the design of an infrared display consisting of an array of small, thermally-emitting elements, capable of displaying a wide variety of IR targets and scenes, and operating as an IR equivalent of a flat TV screen. Elements are fabricated on a silicon substrate using an anisotropic etching technique. An electronic device, either a diode or a pair of transistors, is fabricated with each emitting element to enable the electrical excitation of arbitrarily chosen individual elements without requiring a separate leadout for each element. The display can be operated in a wide range of environments, including cryogenic, vacuum conditions. The design and fabrication of the device are presented in this paper, and a companion paper l will present test results on preliminary versions of the device.
This paper will discuss the pixel by pixel formation of IR scenes using thermoelectric elements. Both 2-5μm and 8-14μm regions are covered. The approach promises flickerless, closed loop, wide dynamic range images which are produced by high emissivity sources. Test results on individual elements in both regimes are presented and two different approaches to implementing the technology will be described. Special test equipment and techniques needed to properly evaluate the target plane will be outlined.
A new method for IR scene simulation and test pattern generation is presented. The principle was first demonstrated at the Center for Night Vision and Electro-Optics (CNVEO) using a laboratory black body source at 40 C, an image diffusion transfer film bearing the projected image and a germanium lens which projected the IR image into a FLIR. Varying effective IR densities are formed in this film by a specularly reflecting layer of pure silver, in which densities depend on prior exposure to light, development and diffusion transfer. Resolution of the film was demonstrated in the visible spectrum to exceed 50 line pairs/mm. The film lends itself to still and motion picture projection over an IR spectrum of at least 2 to 50u.
A five-year independent research and development effort at Lockheed Missiles & Space Company (LMSC) has produced a multiple dynamic target simulation (MDS) technology based upon silicon structures. This technology addresses the need for realistic ground simul-ations of large numbers of objects in the testing of infrared sensors. Individually controllable blackbody radiators, analog sample and hold circuits, shift register addressing circuitry, and dynamic random access memory (RAM) circuitry, all silicon based, make up the large target plane arrays of regularly spaced emitters. This paper presents the current state of development of performance capabilities of LMSC's MDS technology, based upon measurement results. A companion paper' presents a detailed description of the techniques used to generate these structures.
This paper describes a unique Thermal Target Projector (TTP) that has been developed for use with infrared imagers operating in the 8-12 and 3-5 micrometer regions. The application of the TTP includes measurement of the minimum resolvable temperature difference (MRTD) of thermal night sights in laboratory or remote field environments and thermal combat vehicle identification training when used with a library of target scenes. The TTP produces highly realistic target embedded scenes containing single or multiple target arrays when viewed by thermal night sights. The thermal scenes and MRTD patterns are hosted on an IR filmstrip under microprocessor control that permits image frame and temperature intensity selection using a remote pendant. Sample imagery obtained using the TTP and representative IR filmstrips will be presented and discussed as part of the presentation.