Attention to tampering by median filtering (MF) has recently increased in digital image forensics. For the MF detection (MFD), this paper presents a feature vector that is extracted from two kinds of variations between the neighboring line pairs: the row and column directions. Of these variations in the proposed method, one is defined by a gradient difference of the intensity values between the neighboring line pairs, and the other is defined by a coefficient difference of the Fourier transform (FT) between the neighboring line pairs. Subsequently, the constructed 19-dimensional feature vector is composed of these two parts. One is the extracted 9-dimensional from the space domain of an image and the other is the 10-dimensional from the frequency domain of an image. The feature vector is trained in a support vector machine classifier for MFD in the altered images. As a result, in the measured performances of the experimental items, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC, ROC) by the sensitivity (PTP: the true positive rate) and 1-specificity (PFP: the false-positive rate) are above 0.985 and the classification ratios are also above 0.979. Pe (a minimal average decision error) ranges from 0 to 0.024, and PTP at PFP=0.01 ranges from 0.965 to 0.996. It is confirmed that the grade evaluation of the proposed variation-based MF detection method is rated as “Excellent (A)” by AUC is above 0.9.
Introduction of digital communication network such as Integrated Services Digital Networks (ISDN) and digital storage media have rapidly developed. Due to a large amount of image data, compression is the key techniques in still image and video using digital signal processing for transmitting and storing. Digital image compression provides solutions for various image applications that represent digital image requiring a large amount of data. In this paper, the proposed DWT (Discrete Wavelet Transform) filter bank is consisted of simple architecture, but it is efficiently designed that a user obtains a wanted compression rate as only input parameter. If it is implemented by FPGA chip, the designed encoder operates in 12 MHz.
This paper presents a new pseudo-exhaustive testing algorithm that is composed of the path sensitization and sub-circuit partitioning using t-distribution. In the proposed testing algorithm, the paths, for the path sensitization the, between PIs and POs based on the high TMY (test-mainstay) nodes of CUT are sensitized and the boundary nodes, for the partitioned sub-circuits, are defined on the level of significance α on t-distribution respectively. As a consequence, when (1-α) is 0.2368, the most suitable of the performance to operate the singular cover and consistency operation in the path sensitization. And when the α is 0.5217, the most suitable of the performance to partition the sub-circuit in sub-circuit partitioning.