This paper discusses the self-assembled growth of In(Ga)As/GaAs quantum dots by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition and their application to diode lasers and integrated opto-electronic devices. After an extensive study of the growth parameters high densities (3-4×1010cm-2) of defect free quantum dots have been achieved and ground state lasing demonstrated for diode lasers with 5 stacked layers of quantum dots in the active region. This presentation will review the important growth parameters and the lasing characteristics of quantum dot lasers. Results for selective area epitaxy of quantum dots using SiO2 patterning will also be presented. Selective area epitaxy has been used to form quantum dots with different wavelength/bandgap in different regions of a GaAs substrate and has led to the integration of a quantum dot laser and waveguide.
Titanium dioxide (TiO2) cap layers were deposited onto C-doped InGaAs/AlGaAS QW laser structures by electron-beam evaporation in order to investigate their effect on atomic interdiffusion. In comparison to the as-grown sample, a negligible shift of the photoluminescence peak was observed after annealing at 900°C, indicating that the atomic interdiffusion was greatly suppressed by TiO2 capping layers. For the uncapped sample, the high temperature annealing step significantly improves the threshold current density in laser diode devices but leaves the internal efficiency unchanged. We attribute these effects to the activation of the carbon p-type dopant, as demonstrated by electrochemcial C-V capacitance-voltage and X-ray measurements. SIMS analysis shows that the carbon atomic profile does not significantly change after annealing. In contrast, a similar Zn doped laser structure shows an almost flat Zn profile after annealing at 925°C, due to considerable indiffusion from the highly doped p++ GaAs top contact layer in to the rest of the structure.