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1 May 1990 20:1 projection soft x-ray lithography using trilevel resist
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We demonstrate nearly diffraction limited printing using soft x-ray radiation of approximately 36 and 14 nm wavelength. As an imaging system we used a-20X-reduction Schwarzschild-type objective with iridium coated mirrors for use at 36 nm and Mo/Si multilayer coated mirrors for use at 14 nm. An off-axis aperture and illumination were used to eliminate the central obscuration in the imaging system caused by the primary mirror. Two types of masks were used for exposures: an open-stencil one for 36 nm and a silicon membrane with a Ge absorber for 14 nm. The high absorption of carbonbased polymers at these wavelengths requires that imaging resist be very thin. Thin resist layers are not robust and, by themselves, not very useful for processing. By incorporating them into a tn-level resist, however, we have exposed, developed, and transferred features as small as 0.1 jm into silicon.
© (1990) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Tanya E. Jewell, M. M. Becker, John E. Bjorkholm, Jeffrey Bokor, Ludwig Eichner, Richard R. Freeman, William M. Mansfield, Alastair A. MacDowell, M. L. O'Malley, Eric L. Raab, William T. Silfvast, L. H. Szeto, Donald M. Tennant, Warren K. Waskiewicz, Donald L. White, David L. Windt, Obert R. Wood II, and John H. Bruning "20:1 projection soft x-ray lithography using trilevel resist", Proc. SPIE 1263, Electron-Beam, X-Ray, and Ion-Beam Technology: Submicrometer Lithographies IX, (1 May 1990);


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