Integrated silicon photonics promises efficient on-chip solutions for chemical and bio-molecule sensing for faster and reliable disease diagnostics. By integrating a sensor with a light source and a detector, a compact lab-on-chip sensing device is possible to realize. To increase the sensing efficiency, slot waveguide geometry is preferable due to the high confinement of the mode within the cover material.
When two different light-paths in a structure interfere with each other, causing the superposition of a Lorenzian response with the background radiation continuum, a Fano lineshape occurs. This sharp resonance leads to a superior refractive index sensing capability.
To develop a compact on-chip Fano-resonant platform for chemical sensing, we used a merged photonic crystal – slot waveguide (MPCSW) structure as the basic building block. It contains slot waveguides merged with Bragg gratings, formed by periodic patterning of the rails. A defect between the two Bragg grating sections forms a resonant cavity. In addition to the enhancement due to the confinement of light in the slot waveguide, the highly dispersive nature of the Bragg grating leads to slow light effect at the resonance. Three MPCSW structures are parallel-coupled to form an on-chip Fano system. By changing the refractive index of the cover material, we found a sensitivity as high as 775 nm/RIU. Moreover, the group index at the resonance of our Fano system is as high as ng = 500, due to the effect of slow light. We obtain vast increase in the refractive index sensitivity of the device.
We propose a novel waveguide type based on the concept of strip-loaded waveguide. A strip-loaded waveguide is composed of a thin-film slab waveguide allowing a vertical confinement of the electromagnetic field. A lower refractive index strip provides the lateral confinement by inducing a slight modification of the effective index in the slab. By using such a generic device we will demonstrate how the limits of integrated photonics can be extended, especially, in terms of propagation losses while adding complex structure on the waveguide. Since light sees only a slight variation of effective index, and not an abrupt change of material, propagation losses of the device are fully determined by the film rather than by the structuration. Different micro- and nano-structures will be presented through simulation and experimental results. We will focus especially on the study of Y-junctions, ring resonators, interferometers, and Bragg gratings. Another advantage of strip-loaded waveguides is the simplicity of fabrication. In order to fabricate the devices we employed nano-imprinting of polymer, a fabrication technique suitable for mass production. The low refractive index of the polymer allows a large panel of materials for the slab waveguide, e.g., silicon, titanium dioxide, and lithium niobate. This diversity in the choice of the materials gives to the platform the potential to operate on a wide wavelength range from UV to IR, for multiple applications in telecommunications, sensing and bio-sensing, and medical devices.
We present the theoretical analysis and design of a novel slotted photonic crystal geometry to demonstrate an on-chip Fano resonance. The device employs three parallel-coupled slotted photonic crystal cavities on an SOI wafer. We present a systematic analysis of the evolution of the Fano line-shape, while the geometric parameters of the structure and the inter-cavity distances vary. To achieve the dynamic tunability of the Fano resonance, we have considered an active electro-optic chromophore as the cover material of our slot-based geometry. This paves a novel way towards the demonstration of a fully-integrated, electrically-controllable Fano resonant geometry on a silicon-polymer platform.
We demonstrate the possibilities of atomic layer deposition technology to fabricate and improve the quality of nanowaveguide devices of a different kind in TiO2 platform. In particular, we present an original re-coating method of improving the quality of amorphous TiO2 strip waveguides, which reduces the propagation losses significantly. Then we demonstrate how atomic layer deposition technology makes it possible to fabricate very precise slot waveguides and to tune the geometrical parameters of nanobeam cavities operating with visible light. The main fabrication methods of the presented structures are electron beam lithography, reactive ion etching and atomic layer deposition.
A polarization independent band-pass filter is created by combining a silicon cross-slot waveguide and a Bragg grating cavity. By theoretically investigating different types of cavities we show how the sensitivity to polarization of the device can vary, and how we can strongly confine light in a two-dimensional slot waveguide. This kind of structure, where a slot waveguide, a photonic crystal and a nanowire waveguide are merged together, may find applications in the field of sensing. Indeed, a slight variation in the surrounding refractive index breaks the device symmetry. One polarization can thus be used to monitor the fluctuation of the other one. We describe here the principle of a Bragg grating merged with a cross slot waveguide in which a cavity is placed. We discuss the advantage of using different geometries of cavity and how this choice may affect the response of the device.
In this proceeding we are describing the optimization of a silicon slot waveguide coated with titanium dioxide deposited by Atomic Layer Deposition. In addition we show the characterization of a photonic crystal cavity directly patterned on a slot waveguide.