In the center measuring device consisting of a plurality of laser triangular displacement sensors (LDS) for coaxiality measurement of shaft, it fits the center coordinate of the shaft by obtaining the coordinates of the outer contour, this poses a higher requirement for the relative position calibration accuracy of the multi-LDS. Aiming at the positional relationship between multi-LDS, the CMM is leaded into the calibration of the center measuring device. Randomly moves a standard column and reading the length values of multi-LDS, combined with the known center coordinates of the column from CMM, to establish the over-determined nonlinear equations, the angle and starting position of the laser beam of each LDS in the measuring device are calculated. The experiment result indicates that measuring uncertainty of the system is 30 μm, this proved the validity and feasibility of the multi-LDS center measuring device in the use of coaxiality measurement of shaft. As a result, it is found that the proposed calibration method is accuracy to the multi-LDS center measuring device and can be implemented easily.
According to some current problems in the course of measuring the plane shape error of workpiece, an in-situ measuring method based on laser triangulation is presented in this paper. The method avoids the inefficiency of traditional methods like knife straightedge as well as the time and cost requirements of coordinate measuring machine(CMM). A laser-based measuring head is designed and installed on the spindle of a numerical control(NC) machine. The measuring head moves in the path planning to measure measuring points. The spatial coordinates of the measuring points are obtained by the combination of the laser triangulation displacement sensor and the coordinate system of the NC machine, which could make the indicators of measurement come true. The method to evaluate planar straightness error adopts particle swarm optimization(PSO). To verify the feasibility and accuracy of the measuring method, simulation experiments were implemented with a CMM. Comparing the measurement results of measuring head with the corresponding measured values obtained by composite measuring machine, it is verified that the method can realize high-precise and automatic measurement of the planar straightness error of the workpiece.
Nowadays, as workpieces become more precise and more specialized which results in more sophisticated structures and higher accuracy for the artifacts, higher requirements have been put forward for measuring accuracy and measuring methods. As an important method to obtain the size of workpieces, coordinate measuring machine (CMM) has been widely used in many industries. In order to achieve the calibration of a self-developed CMM, it is found that the parallelism of the base plate used for fixing the standard artifact is an important factor which affects the measurement accuracy in the process of studying self-made high-precision standard artifact. And aimed to measure the parallelism of the base plate, by using the existing high-precision CMM, gauge blocks, dial gauge and marble platform with the tactile approach, three methods for parallelism measurement of workpieces are employed, and comparisons are made within the measurement results. The results of experiments show that the final accuracy of all the three methods is able to reach micron level and meets the measurement requirements. Simultaneously, these three approaches are suitable for different measurement conditions which provide a basis for rapid and high-precision measurement under different equipment conditions.
The multistep registration(MSR) method in  is to register two different classes of sensors deployed on z-arm of CMM(coordinate measuring machine): a video camera and a tactile probe sensor. In general, it is difficult to obtain a very precise registration result with a single common standard, instead, this method is achieved by measuring two different standards with a constant distance between them two which are fixed on a steel plate. Although many factors have been considered such as the measuring ability of sensors, the uncertainty of the machine and the number of data pairs, there is no exact analysis on the squareness between the x-axis and the y-axis on the xy plane. For this sake, error analysis on the squareness of multi-sensor integrated CMM for the multistep registration method will be made to examine the validation of the MSR method. Synthetic experiments on the squareness on the xy plane for the simplified MSR with an inclination rotation are simulated, which will lead to a regular result. Experiments have been carried out with the multi-standard device designed also in , meanwhile, inspections with the help of a laser interferometer on the xy plane have been carried out. The final results are conformed to the simulations, and the squareness errors of the MSR method are also similar to the results of interferometer. In other word, the MSR can also adopted/utilized to verify the squareness of a CMM.
More and more people, especial women, are getting desired to be more beautiful than ever. To some extent, it becomes true because the plastic surgery of face was capable in the early 20th and even earlier as doctors just dealing with war injures of face. However, the effect of post-operation is not always satisfying since no animation could be seen by the patients beforehand. In this paper, by combining plastic surgery of face and computer graphics, a novel method of simulated appearance of post-operation will be given to demonstrate the modified face from different viewpoints. The 3D human face data are obtained by using 3D fringe pattern imaging systems and CT imaging systems and then converted into STL (STereo Lithography) file format. STL file is made up of small 3D triangular primitives. The triangular mesh can be reconstructed by using hash function. Top triangular meshes in depth out of numbers of triangles must be picked up by ray-casting technique. Mesh deformation is based on the front triangular mesh in the process of simulation, which deforms interest area instead of control points. Experiments on face model show that the proposed 3D animation facial plastic surgery can effectively demonstrate the simulated appearance of post-operation.