Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) uses a 13.5nm exposure wavelength, all-reflective projection optics, and a reflective mask under an oblique illumination with a chief ray angle of about 6 degrees to print device patterns. This imaging configuration leads to many challenges related to 3D mask topography. In order to accurately predict and correct these problems, it is important to use a 3D mask model in full-chip EUVL applications such as optical proximity correction (OPC) and verifications. In this work, a fast approximate 3D mask model developed previously for full-chip deep ultraviolet (DUV) applications is extended and greatly enhanced for EUV applications and its accuracy is evaluated against a rigorous 3D mask model.
Implant layer patterning is becoming challenging with node shrink due to decreasing critical dimension (CD) and usage
of non-uniform reflective substrates without bottom anti-reflection coating (BARC).
Conventional OPC models are calibrated on a uniform silicon substrate and the model does not consider any wafer
topography proximity effects from sub-layers. So the existing planar OPC model cannot predict the sub-layer effects
such as reflection and scattering of light from substrate and non-uniform interfaces. This is insufficient for layers without
BARC, e.g., implant layer, as technology node shrinks.
For 45-nm and larger nodes, the wafer topography proximity effects in implant layer have been ignored or compensated
using rule based OPC. When the node reached 40 nm and below, the sub-layer effects cause undesired CD variation and
resist profile change. Hence, it is necessary to model the wafer topography proximity effects accurately and compensate
them by model based OPC. Rigorous models can calculate the wafer topography proximity effects quite accurately if
well calibrated. However, the run time for model calibration and OPC compensation are long by rigorous models and
they are not suitable for full chip applications. In this paper, we demonstrate an accurate and rapid method that considers
wafer topography proximity effects using a kernel based model. We also demonstrate application of this model for full
chip OPC on implant layers.
We describe novel methods for waveform synthesis and detection relying on longitudinal spectral decomposition of subpicosecond optical pulses. Optical processing is performed in both all-fiber and mixed fiber/free-space systems. Demonstrated applications include ultrafast optical waveform synthesis, microwave spectrum analysis, and high-speed electrical arbitrary waveform generation. The techniques have the potential for time bandwidth products ≥104 due to exclusive reliance on time-domain processing. We introduce the principles of operation and subsequently support these with results from our experimental systems. Both theory and experiments suggest third order dispersion as the principle limitation to large time-bandwidth products. Chirped fiber Bragg gratings offer a route to increasing the number of resolvable spots for use in high speed signal processing applications.