Journal of Micro/Nanolithography, MEMS, and MOEMS

Editor-in-Chief: Chris A. Mack,, USA

The Journal of Micro/Nanolithography, MEMS, and MOEMS (JM3) publishes papers on the science, development, and practice of lithographic, fabrication, packaging, and integration technologies necessary to address the needs of the electronics, MEMS, MOEMS, and photonics industries. The wide range of such devices includes biomedical microdevices, microfluidics, sensors and actuators, adaptive optics, and digital micromirrors. The scope is broad to facilitate synergy and interest between the communities served by the journal.

Calls for Papers
How to Submit to a Special Section

To submit a manuscript for consideration in a Special Section, please prepare the manuscript according to the journal guidelines and use the Online Submission SystemLeaving site. A cover letter indicating that the submission is intended for this special section should be included with the paper. Papers will be peer‐reviewed in accordance with the journal's established policies and procedures. Authors who pay the voluntary page charges will receive the benefit of open access.

Control of Integrated Circuit Patterning Variance, Part 3: Pattern Roughness, Local Uniformity, and Stochastic Defects
Publication Date
Special section papers are published as soon as the copyedited and typeset proofs are approved by the author.
Submission Deadline
Manuscripts due 20 April 2018
Guest Editors
John C. Robinson

KLA-Tencor Corp.
Austin, Texas

Tim Brunner

Hopewell Junction, New York

Gian Lorusso

IMEC, Metrology Division
Leuven, Belgium


Pattern variation due to stochastic processes is a significant problem for advanced semiconductor manufacturing. This variation can impact wafer patterning either quantitatively (CD uniformity, line-edge or linewidth roughness, edge placement error) or qualitatively (microbridges or breaks, closed or bridged contacts). Sources of stochastic variation include photo mask and lithography, as well as downstream processing such as etch, deposition, and cleans. While stochastic pattern variation is not a new problem, it becomes more challenging with smaller design rules where (1) feature roughness becomes an increasing percentage of the feature size, 10% to 20% in some cases, when (2) exposures of greater than 1 trillion features per wafer pass are expected to yield, and with (3) EUV lithography and its challenges of source power and throughput.

Integrated circuit (IC) patterning control addresses variance on multiple length scales. Longer length scales are typically characterized by critical dimension (CD) and placement (mask registration, wafer alignment, and layer-to-layer centerline overlay). Shorter length scale variability is characterized by line-edge roughness (LER), linewidth roughness (LWR), local CD uniformity (LCDU), pattern placement roughness, and defectivity. As the industry approaches sub-10 nm node design rules, the discrete nature of light due to shot noise (e.g., one contact may use as few as ~100 photons in an EUV exposure scenario) and the discrete nature of matter come into play. Even in cases where conventional continuum analysis would predict a sufficient process window, stochastic defects can occur due to the discrete nature of the light/matter interaction.   This special section of the Journal of Micro/Nanolithography, MEMS, and MOEMS seeks to offer technical contributions in the areas of LER, LWR, LCDU, and stochastic defectivity. Targeted disciplines include metrology, inspection, review, lithography, optical proximity correction (OPC) verification, etch processing, deposition, process integration, materials development, data science, algorithm development, electrical characterization, and yield analysis. Please submit a technology overview, a consolidation of earlier work, or an original technical paper related to:  

  • Metrology and inspection of roughness including CD scanning electron microscope (CD SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS), optical CD (OCD), focused ion beam (FIB), transmission electron microscope (TEM), optical defect inspection, e-beam defect inspection, and e-beam defect review
  • Methodologies to quantify roughness: edge detection, measurement algorithms, mathematical methods, power spectrum density (PSD), LER-bias characterization, statistical analysis
  • Roughness standards, reference metrology, and sampling
  • Roughness mitigation and control, OPC verification, stochastic process simulation
  • Material and process characterization: mask roughness, litho scanner systems, photoresist, resist processing, plasma smoothing, development of new resists, etch, deposition, and cleans
  • Roughness impact on device performance, electrical breakdown, circuit timing, and yield improvement
  • EUV stochastic defectivity levels, litho dose requirements by feature type and size, and mitigation methods
  • Design methodologies for stochastic fault tolerance.

All submissions will be peer reviewed. Peer review will commence immediately upon manuscript submission, with a goal of making a first decision within 6 weeks of manuscript submission. Special sections are opened online once a minimum of four papers have been accepted. Each paper is published as soon as the copyedited and typeset proofs are approved by the author. Submissions should follow the guidelines of JM3. Manuscripts should be submitted online at

For more information, please contact one of the guest editors or

IC Variance
Previously Published Special Sections

EUV Lithography for the 3-nm Node and Beyond (October-December 2017)
Guest Editors: Vivek Bakshi, Hakaru Mizoguchi, Ted Liang, Andrew Grenville, and Jos Benschop

Alternative Lithographic Technologies V (July-September 2016)
Guest Editors: Chris Bencher and Ricardo Ruiz

Control of Integrated Circuit Patterning Variance, Part 2: Image Placement, Device Overlay, and Critical Dimension (April-June 2016)
Guest Editor: Alexander Starikov

Photomask Manufacturing Technology (April-June 2016)
Guest Editors: Masato Shibuya, Morihisa Hoga, and Kiwamu Takehisa

Extending VLSI and Alternative Technology with Optical and Complementary Lithography (April-June 2016)
Guest Editors: Kafai Lai and Andreas Erdmann

On the Interface of Holography and MEMS (October-December 2015)
Guest Editors: Partha Banerjee, Pierre-Alexandre Blanche, Christophe Moser, and Myung K. Kim

Alternative Lithographic Technologies IV (July-September 2015)
Guest Editors: Douglas J. Resnick, Ricardo Ruiz, and Hans Loeschner

Control of Integrated Circuit Patterning Variance Part 1: Metrology, Process Monitoring, and Control of Critical Dimension (April-June 2015)
Guest Editors: Alexander Starikov and Matthew Sendelbach

Continuation of Scaling with Optical and Complementary Lithography (January-March 2015)
Guest Editors: Kafai Lai and Andreas Erdmann

Holistic/Hybrid Metrology (October-December 2014)
Guest Editors: Alok Vaid and Eric Solecky

Alternative Lithographic Technologies III (July-September 2014)
Guest Editors: Douglas J. Resnick, Christopher Bencher, and Ricardo Ruiz

Metrology and Inspection for 3-D Integrated Circuits and Interconnects (January-March 2014)
Guest Editors: Yi-sha Ku and Alexander Starikov

Emerging MOEMS Technology and Applications (January-March 2014)
Guest Editors: M. Edward Motamedi, Joel Kubby, Patrick Ian Oden, and Wibool Piyawattanametha

Optical Lithography Extension Beyond the 14-nm Node (January-March 2014)
Guest Editors: Will Conley and Kafai Lai

Advanced Fabrication of MEMS and Photonic Devices (October-December 2013)
Guest Editors: Georg von Freymann, Mary Ann Maher, and Thomas J. Suleski

Advanced Plasma-Etch Technology (October-December 2013)
Guest Editors: Ying Zhang, Qinghuang Lin, and Gottlieb S. Oehrlein

Alternative Lithographic Technologies (July-September 2013)
Guest Editors: Will Tong and Douglas J. Resnick

Photomasks for EUV Lithography (April-June 2013)
Guest Editors: Christopher J. Progler and Frank E. Abboud

Alternative Lithographic Technologies (July-September 2012)
Guest Editors: William M. Tong, Douglas J. Resnick, and Benjamin Rathsack

Directed Self-Assembly (July-September 2012)
Guest Editors: Daniel P. Sanders and William H. Arnold

Reliability, Packaging, Testing, and Characterization of MEMS and MOEMS III (April-June 2012)
Guest Editors: Sonia M. García-Blanco and Rajeshuni Ramesham

EUV Sources for Lithography (April-June 2012)
Guest Editors: Vivek Bakshi and Anthony Yen

Dimensional Metrology with Atomic Force Microscopy: Instruments and Applications (January-March 2012)
Guest Editors: Ronald Dixson and Ndubuisi G. Orji

Theory and Practice of MEMS, NEMS, and MOEMS (January-March 2011)
Guest Editor: Yu-Cheng Lin

Reliability, Packaging, Testing, and Characterization of MEMS and MOEMS II (October-December 2010)
Guest Editor: Rajeshuni Ramesham

Line-Edge Roughness (October-December 2010 )
Guest Editors: Chris A. Mack and Will Conley

Metrology (October-December 2010 )
Guest Editors: Moshe Preil and Shaunee Cheng

BioMEMS, Theory and Practice of MEMS/NEMS, and Sensors (July-September 2010)
Guest Editor: Yu-Cheng Lin

Extreme-Ultraviolet Lithography (October-December 2009)
Guest Editors: Kevin Cummings and Kazuaki Suzuki

Reliability, Packaging, Testing, and Characterization of MEMS and MOEMS (July-September 2009)
Guest Editors: Rajeshuni Ramesham and Allyson L. Hartzell

Computational Lithography (July-September 2009)
Guest Editors: Donis Flagello and Chris Mack

Theory and Practice of MEMS/NEMS/MOEMS, RF MEMS, and BioMEMS (April-June 2009)
Guest Editor: Yu-Cheng Lin

Extreme-Ultraviolet Interference Lithography (April-June 2009)
Guest Editor: Franco Cerrina

Double-Patterning Lithography (January-March 2009)
Guest Editor: William H. Arnold

Silicon-Based MOEMS and Their Applications (April-June 2008)
Guest Editors: Harald Schenk and Wibool Piyawattanametha

Resolution Enhancement Techniques and Design for Manufacturability (July-September 2007)
Guest Editor: Alfred K. K. Wong

Bio-MEMS and Microfluidics (April-June 2006)
Guest Editors: Wanjun Wang and Ian Papautsky

Nanopatterning (January-March 2006)
Guest Editors: Kees Eijkel, Jill Hruby, Glen Kubiak, M. Scott, Volker Saile, and Steven Walsh

MOEMS Design, Technology, and Applications (October-December 2005)
Guest Editor: M. Edward Motamedi

Polarization and Hyper-NA Lithography (July-September 2005)
Guest Editor: Donis Flagello and Christopher J. Progler

Next Generation Lithography (January-March 2005)
Guest Editor: Walt Trybula

Mask Technology for Optical Lithography (April-June 2004)
Guest Editor: Kevin D. Cummings and Frank M. Schellenberg

Immersion Lithography (January-March 2004)
Guest Editor: William H. Arnold

Surface Micromachining (October-December 2003)
Guest Editors: Jeffry J. Sniegowski and James H. Smith

Micro-Optics for Photonic Networks (October-December 2003)
Guest Editor: Thomas J. Suleski

Lithography for Sub-100-nm Device Fabrication (October-December 2002)
Guest Editor: William H. Arnold

Back to Top